Chapter 6

Food and Nutrition

6.1.1 The Food and Nutrition Board ((FNB), a non-statutory ministerial wing of the Ministry of Food was transferred to the Department of Women and Child Development on 1st April, 1993 as per the orders of the Prime Minister in pursuance of the National Nutrition Policy which was adopted by the Government in 1993 under the aegis of this Department. The non-plan infrastructure of FNB comprising of a technical wing at the Centre, 4 Regional Offices and Quality Control Laboratories at Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai, and 43 Community Food and Nutrition Extension Units (CFNEUs) located in 27 States/UTs is indicated in the organizational chart given below.

6.1.2 The FNB is engaged in its conventional activities as well as in new initiatives undertaken as a follow up of National Nutrition Policy. Some of the important areas of FNB Activities are as under:


triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Nutrition Education and Orientation

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Training in home-scale preservation of fruits and vegetables

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Monitoring of supplementary feeding at anganwadis

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Development of educational/training material

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Mass awareness campaigns

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Development and promotion of nutritious foods

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Fortification of foods

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Food analysis and standardisation

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Research and Development


triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Implementation of National Nutrition Policy - Centre and State level action.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Micronutrient Malnutrition Control Activities

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) District Nutrition Profiles

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Nutrition Surveillance System

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Strategy for reducing childhood malnutrition

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Advocacy and sensitisation of policy makers and programme managers


Nutrition Education and Orientation

6.2.1 Nutrition education of the people in rural, urban and tribal areas is one of the primary activities of the infrastructure of FNB and is carried out through its non-plan infrastructure of 43 Community Food & Nutrition Extension Units (CFNEUs) in different States/UTs in collaboration with State Governments, national institutes & NGOs. Each unit is equipped with a mobile van, audio-visual equipment and is manned by technically trained personnel. FNB Headquarters through 4 Regional Offices of FNB provides the logistic support for the functioning of these units.

6.2.2 Nutrition Demonstration Programmes in rural, urban and tribal areas for a group of about 45 persons, mainly women are organised by each of the CFNEUs. A total of 9310 Nutrition Demonstration Programmes were organised during the period April to December, 1999, 8405 of which were in rural areas and 4152 for SC/ST Communities. About 4.15 lakh people comprising mainly of women, benefited from these programmes, 42.8 percent (1.79 lakh) of which belonged to SC/ST community.

6.2.3 CFNEUs also provided nutrition education support to different sectors of the Government implementing developmental programmes. Nutrition orientation of grass root level functionaries and their supervisors is undertaken by organising Integrated Nutrition Education Camps (INECs) and Orientation Training Courses (OTCs) with a view to utilise the existing infrastructure of the Government for imparting basic nutrition messages to the community. Five day INECs are organised by CFNEUs for grass root level workers namely Anganwadi Workers, multipurpose health workers, ANMs, health educators, adult education supervisors, mahila mandal adhyakshas (NGOs), gram sevikas, etc., in the field. Five day OTCs for training supervisors and trainers of grass root level functionaries namely CDPOs, ACDPOs, supervisors, instructors, health trainers, adult education instructors, trainers from voluntary organisations etc., are organised at the state level training institutes, home science colleges etc. Intensive practical education on various aspects of food, nutrition, health and hygiene is provided through these programmes. An exhibition with the help of panels, posters and demonstrations is also organised in each of these programmes to highlight the nutritional needs of infants, pre-school children and other vulnerable groups. 88 INECs/OTCs have been organised during the year upto December, 1999. Some of the important nutrition education and training programmes organised include:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Nutrition education programmes were organised by CFNEUs for office goers in Government buildings in various cities. An exhibition on nutrition was also put up at these venues.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) FNB collaborated with the Bank of India and organised a nutrition  education-cum- exhibition programme for its officers from all the branches at its Head Office at New Delhi.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Nutrition education and training programmes were organised for the inmates of Tihar Jail, Delhi.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) The CFNEUs in Andhra Pradesh organised training courses on preparation of low cost supplementary foods for ICDS beneficiaries for 800 Mother Committees constituted under World Bank assisted ICDS.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Nutrition education programmes and exhibitions were organised for the women beneficiaries in the Legal Literacy Camp set up by the All India Women’s Education Fund Association from 1-16 December, 1999.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) FNB actively participated in the Annual Convention of the Indian Dietetics Association on the theme of "Dietetics in the Next Millennium". An exhibition on Nutrition was also put up at AIIMS, New Delhi, the venue of the Convention.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Special nutrition education programmes were organised by CFNEU, Mumbai for the elderly in the State of Maharashtra.

Training in home-scale preservation of fruits and vegetables

6.2.4  The CFNEUs impart education and training in home-scale preservation of fruits and vegetables to housewives and adolescent girls with a view to promote preservation and consumption of fruits and vegetables which provide much needed micronutrients, as well as to provide necessary skills which could be useful for income generation purposes. Two training courses of two week duration are organised per month by 33 CFNEUs, out of 43, having processing facilities. 24 such courses are organised exclusively for tribal adolescent girls and women by four CFNEUs every year. Processing facilities for fruits and vegetables are offered to the community on payment of nominal charges. A nutrition component is also added in these training courses and preparation of nutritious recipes including instant infant foods from roasted cereals, pulses and oil seeds suitable for infants and young children are also taught during the training.

6.2.5  596 training courses benefiting 15,902 women/adolescent girls have been organised upto December, 1999, the number of SC/ST trainees being 4,063. 14 courses have been organised for tribal adolescent girls and women benefiting 360 trainees. The community prepared 187.3 MTs of fruit and vegetable products at the units for their domestic consumption during the period April to December, 1999. Some special programmes organised during the year include:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A training programme on nutrition and fruit and vegetable preservation was organised for members of Mahila Mandals at Bihar Bhavan, New Delhi.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A skill development training programme on preservation of fruits and vegetables for women prisoners was organised by CFNEU, Pondicherry.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) CFNEU, Vishakhapatnam processed 42 kgs of onion chutney for distribution to the victims of Orissa cyclone.

Monitoring of Supplementary Feeding under ICDS

6.2.6 The FNB through its field infrastructure of 43 CFNEUs has been assessing the quality and regularity of Supplementary Food at ICDS Anganwadis since 1993. Each CFNEU inspects about 15 anganwadis per month in the area of its operation with regard to the type of food received, its storage at anganwadis, food preparations made and given to beneficiaries along with amount and acceptability of the supplementary food, availability of safe drinking water and environmental sanitation. Based on the assessment, suggestions are provided to the field staff as well as to the State Governments for improving the quality of Supplementary Feeding at ICDS.

6.2.7 During the period April to December, 1999 as many as 5430 anganwadis were inspected for monitoring of supplementary feeding component.

6.2.8  The performance of CFNEUs during 1998-99 and April to December, 1999 is given in Table 1.

Development of Educational/Training Material

6.2.9 Development, production and distribution of educational and training material on nutrition for use by grass root level functionaries, their supervisors and various field agencies is critical to empowering the communication agents of the Government so as to enable them to impart basic nutrition messages to the community during their course of duties. Efforts have been made to promote nutrition of infants, pregnant and lactating women since they constitute the most vulnerable segments of the population as far as nutrition is concerned.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A chart on Guidelines on infant feeding has been printed in regional languages and distributed to ICDS infrastructure.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A poster on Nutrition for nursing mothers and a wall hanger on Prevention of malnutrition and anaemia in pregnant women has been printed in regional languages and is being distributed widely throughout the country.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A wall calendar for the year, 2000 titled ‘Better Nutrition Better Life carrying messages on nutrition in Hindi and English has been printed and distributed to various organisations at Centre, State and District levels to promote healthy eating for better nutrition and health.

6.2.10  FNB strives to create nutritional awareness through mass media communication also. Video films and spots developed and produced in regional languages are provided to Regional Kendras of Doordarshan for telecast and are also shown by CFNEUs during nutrition education programmes. Considering the vast outreach of radio, this medium of communication has also been well utilised by FNB for creating mass awareness in nutrition. Some of the important media activities of FNB have been as under:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 4 video spots and 3 radio spots on infant nutrition have been developed during the year.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Quarter page supplements highlighting the need for supplementary feeding, preventing malnutrition in 0-2 years and promoting consumption of green leafy vegetables and other vegetables and fruits have also been given in the newspapers.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A radio sponsored programme on ‘Poshan aur Swasthya’ with 30 episodes on various aspects of nutrition has been prepared and is being launched shortly. The programme will be relayed through 30 Commercial Broadcasting Stations of AIR in 12 regional languages in the country.


1998-99 AND 1999-2000 (April-Dec. 1999)


(upto Dec.99)
1 Total No. of Nutrition Education Programmes 13,045 9310
2. Total No. of Rural Programmes 10,120 8405
3. Total No. of Beneficiaries 4,45,619 4,15,286
4. SC/ST Beneficiaries 2,14,999 1,77,889
5. % of SC/ST Beneficiaries. 48.25% 42.83%

No. of Training Courses in Fruit & Vegetable preservation  and Nutrition

848 596
7 Total No. of Trainees 23,190 15,902
8 SC/ST Trainees 5052 4,063 (25.5%)
9. Quantity of Processed Fruits & Vegetables 333 MTs 187.3MTs
10. No. of Anganwadis monitored for Supplementary Feeding 7268 5,430
11. No. of INECs & OTCs Organised 115 64/24
12. Programmes collaborated with ICDS Anganwadis   5556

No. of training courses organised for SC/ST community under accelerated programmes 

24 14


No. of SC/ST trainees 631 360

Mass awareness campaigns

6.2.11 Nation-wide celebration of important events like National Nutrition Week, involving all supporting agencies through Doordarshan, AIR, leading newspapers; participating in prestigious melas/exhibitions; organising exhibitions, film and slide shows during nutrition education programmes; giving programmes on TV and AIR and arranging press coverage of Integrated Nutrition Education Programmes for wider coverage are some of the important strategies adopted for creating nutritional awareness among the masses.

National Nutrition Week

6.2.12 The XVIII National Nutrition Week was celebrated throughout the country from 1-7 September, 1999 on the theme of ‘Preventing Malnutrition among Children Under Two Years’ enlisting support from State Governments, educational institutions and NGOs. The Chief Secretaries of all the States, State Secretaries incharge of Women and Child Development and Secretaries of concerned sectors of the Government were provided background material on the theme with the request to disseminate the same through their field infrastructure. A quarter-page advertisement highlighting the theme was released in national Hindi and English dailies and also in regional languages during the week. TV, radio and press covered various programmes organised by 43 CFNEUs during the week.

6.2.13 Nation wide activities included State level workshops on the theme of the Week, exhibitions, live demonstrations, training programmes etc. 27 State Level Workshops were organised by the CFNEUs in different States.

World Breast Feeding Week

6.2.14 The World Breast Feeding Week was observed from 1st to 7th August, 1999 on the global theme of ‘Breast Feeding - Education for Life’ by CFNEUs throughout the country. Background information and necessary guidance was given to all the field units with a view to facilitate effective organisation of a variety of programmes during the week in collaboration with Breast Feeding Promotion Network of India, State Governments, NGOs and Home Science Colleges. 869 demonstrations, 221 exhibitions, 184 film and slide shows and 287 other functions comprising Workshops, Discussions, Essay and Drawing Competitions were organised by the field infrastructure of FNB.

World Food Day

6.2.15 FNB collaborated actively with the Ministry of Agriculture in organising World Food Day on the theme ‘Youth against Hunger’ on 16thOctober, 1999. The field units of FNB organised special programmes like seminars, workshops, exhibitions, etc., throughout the country on this specific theme.

Global Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) Day

6.2.16 The Global IDD Day was observed on 21stOctober, 1999 for eliminating iodine deficiency disorders. The field infrastructure of FNB organised special nutrition education programmes on prevention of Iodine Deficiency Disorders on 21st October, 1999 and observed this day in collaboration with State Health Departments.

6.2.17 FNB’s field infrastructure of 43 CFNEUs celebrated Universal Children’s Day and organised various programmes to propogate food values and nutrition for the children.

Development and Promotion of Nutritious Foods

6.3.1 Community Based Production of Nutritious Foods involving NGOs and women groups has been one of the important interventions for meeting the nutrition of children and women. 12 such units were set up during 1993-97 with one-time financial assistance of a maximum of Rs.5.00 lakhs to the NGOs. These units are producing low cost nutritious foods at the community level for use in supplementary feeding programmes. A different home based version of community based production of nutritious foods involving women groups has, also been included in the proposed National Nutrition Mission.

Fortification of foods

6.4.1 Fortification of common foods with vital nutrients is one of the fastest and most effective method of reaching adequate nutrition to the people. A number of food fortification programmes had been undertaken by FNB in the past which include fortification of wheat flour with soya flour, fortification of Modern Bread with lysine/soya flour and fortification of salt with iron.

6.4.2 The scheme on fortification of milk with vitamin A was started in 1980 in Mother Dairies at Delhi and Calcutta. The objective was to replace the vitamin A lost during the toning process of milk. An amount of 200 IU of vitamin A is added to 100 ml. of milk. Dairies are reimbursed the amount spent on fortification with vitamin A for the first 3 years and thereafter the fortification was undertaken by dairies themselves. Currently 32 dairies in the country are fortifying milk with vitamin A and on an average, 25 lakh litres of milk fortified with vitamin A is produced daily through these dairies. Incidentally, since the scheme is in the process of being included in the new scheme on ‘Implementation of National Nutrition Policy’, no new dairy has been inducted during the year.

6.4.3 Efforts are being made to mobilise the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture, to take up fortification of all toned and double toned milk in the country through the network of cooperative dairies. Efforts are also in progress to explore the possibility of fortifying wheat flour with iron, folic acid and some B-Complex vitamins and sugar with Vitamin A by concerned sectors of the Government with technical inputs from the Department.

Food Analysis and Standardisation

6.5.1 FNB has four Quality Control Laboratories at Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai which analyse processed fruit and vegetable products as well as various supplementary foods used in feeding programmes. The samples of the supplementary foods used in ICDS and Mid-Day Meal Programme are received from the State Departments of Social Welfare and Women & Child Development for analysis. A total of 18,310 samples were analysed during April to December, 1999.

6.5.2 FNB renders technical expertise for food quality and standardisation in various committees. FNB made important contributions in the 31st Session of Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants held at the Hague, Netherlands during 22-26 March, 1999 and 23rd Session of Codex Alimentarius Commission held at Rome, Italy from 28th June to 3rd July, 1999.

6.5.3 The standards for composition of cereal based infant foods was protected by restricting the addition of tapioca-starch in the same. The age for addition of supplementary foods in the diet of infants was also not allowed to be lowered from at about 6 months in the interest of nutrition of infants and young children in the developing world.

Research and Development

6.6.1 Research and Development (R&D) programmes are essential for improving the existing interventions and for adopting innovative approaches for control of malnutrition. Priority areas for R&D activities of FNB include situational analysis, development of software on nutrition, and nutrition surveillance adopting triple A approach. The following two R&D projects have been in progress during the year:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) IEC - An instrument in promoting child health sponsored to Institute of Home Economics, New Delhi.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Integrated Education and Training through Triple A (Assessment, Analysis and Action) Approach for reduction in malnutrition, sponsored to National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad to be undertaken in the States of Assam, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.

6.6.2 The R&D scheme of FNB has been amalgamated with the main R&D scheme of the Department.


Implementation of National Nutrition Policy - Centre and State level action

6.7.1 The National Nutrition Policy adopted by the Government in 1993 under the aegis of this Department makes DWCD the nodal department for nutrition. The implementation strategy outlined in the Nutrition Policy envisaged intersectoral coordination mechanism at Centre and State levels with a view to promote action on direct and indirect instruments of the Nutrition Policy. A National Plan of Action on Nutrition serves as a framework for operationalising the Nutrition Policy through 14 concerned sectors of the Government. Progress in sectoral activities is obtained periodically from these sectors.

6.7.2 The Food and Nutrition Council was constituted in November 1997 replacing the Interministerial Coordination Committee and FNB Advisory Committee on Nutrition. In the first meeting of the Food and Nutrition Council held under the chairmanship of HRM in December 1997, it was decided to prepare a paper on National Nutrition Mission with a view to address the problem of malnutrition in a ‘mission mode approach’. The paper on National Nutrition Mission duly approved by Secretary and MOS was considered by the Executive Committee of the Food and Nutrition Council in its meeting held on 30th August, 1999. The same has been placed before the Food and Nutrition Council in the meeting held on 24 January 2000 under the Chairpersonship of Minister of State (WCD). During both these meetings, the members unanimously complimented the Department for this initiative and supported the launching of National Nutrition Mission to bridge the last gap in development that is ‘malnutrition’.

6.7.3 The National Nutrition Mission aims at eradicating malnutrition in a time bound fashion. The three important areas for action are:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Vigorous awareness campaign on malnutrition and its prevention throughout the country.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Direct interventions for preventing malnutrition in children under two years, low birth weight, chronic energy deficiency and anaemia amongst adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and micronutrient malnutrition in the general population.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes)  Nutrition Monitoring, Mapping and Surveillance to be established in the country for reducing malnutrition.

6.7.4 A number of international organisations have expressed their interest in supporting the National Nutrition Mission.

6.7.5 The cutting edge of Governmental interventions commences from the state level. Hence, the successful institutionalization of Nutrition Policy is largely dependant on the effective role of the State Governments. The Chief Secretaries and Secretaries incharge of Women and Child Development of various States/UTs have been addressed from time to time for establishing inter-sectoral coordination mechanisms in the States. The State Level Nutrition Councils under the chairmanship of Chief Ministers and the Inter-departmental Coordination Committees under the chairmanship of Chief Secretary and similar structures at district levels had been recommended to the States. The States/UTs of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Manipur, Rajasthan, Sikkim and West Bengal have constituted State Level Nutrition Council and Inter-departmental Coordination Committee. The States of Tamil Nadu and Gujarat have formulated State Nutrition Policies. The States of Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are working towards finalisation of State Plan of Action on Nutrition. The State level actions have also been discussed in the meetings of State Ministers and Secretaries incharge of Women and Child Development held in Delhi from time to time.

Micronutrient Malnutrition Control Activities

6.8.1 An Integrated Project on Micronutrient Malnutrition Control to be implemented in the State of West Bengal and Gujarat with the financial assistance from Micronutrient Initiative (MI) was recommended to the Department of Economic Affairs in June 1999. Financial assistance to the tune of 3 million Canadian dollars each has been approved to the States of West Bengal and Gujarat by the MI for a period of two years.

6.8.2 The Government of West Bengal has constituted various committees and has initiated the process for implementation of the project. The State Government has been advised to cover the most vulnerable groups of the population namely 0-2 year old children, adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating mothers, under this project in whichever geographic areas the activities are undertaken.

District Nutrition Profiles

6.9.1 The Department had undertaken District Nutrition Profile studies through three National Level Institutes during 1995-96. The District Nutrition Profiles of 187 districts included in the publication India Nutrition Profile, 1998 has been circulated widely to various States and organisations with the request to focus their developmental programmes in high malnutrition districts.

6.9.2 The studies in the States of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Orissa being undertaken by the National Institute of Nutrition are in progress. The State Governments are also advised to map the nutrition situation in the State utilising the growth monitoring data of ICDS.

Nutrition Surveillance System

6.9.3 Nutrition Monitoring, Mapping and Surveillance are essential instruments of any endeavour aimed at improving the nutrition of the people. The Department had undertaken a Nutrition Surveillance Project in Andhra Pradesh in collaboration with the National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad which has demonstrated that nutrition surveillance can be successfully undertaken through the infrastructure of ICDS. It also revealed that malnutrition levels were significantly reduced in all the districts of Andhra Pradesh as a result of surveillance activities. The Department has sanctioned a similar project to National Institute of Nutrition for developing nutrition surveillance in the States of Assam, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. The State Governments have also been advised to adopt the Orissa Model of Nutrition Mapping based on ICDS data. The States have been requested to make "nutrition" a subject of developmental reviews at State and District levels with a view to ensure reduction of malnutrition in a time bound fashion.

Strategy for reducing childhood malnutrition

6.10.1 The Department had coordinated the Development of National Strategy for Reducing Childhood Malnutrition in the country under the Regional Technical Assistance Programme of ADB and UNICEF. The report has identified female illiteracy, early marriages and teenage pregnancies, lack of nutritional awareness as some of the important determinants of malnutrition. The report has also recommended higher expenditure on social sector programmes. An advocacy booklet on the findings of the study is being prepared so as to enable wider circulation for advocating the cause of malnutrition.

Advocacy and sensitisation of policy makers and programme managers

6.11.1 Advocacy and sensitisation of policy makers for integrating nutritional concerns in developmental programmes is a key issue for promoting nutrition of the people in the country. 4 Regional Workshops were planned for this purpose. The first advocacy workshop was held at Chandigarh on 18-19 November, 1999. The participants included senior State Government officers of concerned Departments like Women and Child Development, Health and Family Welfare, Education, Agriculture, Food and Civil Supplies and Information & Broadcasting, eminent experts and NGOs. A number of press releases also appeared during the Workshop which further helped in creating mass awareness on nutrition.

6.11.2 The 2nd Workshop was held at Calcutta on 18-19 January, 2000 and the 3rd at Chennai on 15-16 February, 2000.

6.11.3 The progress of National Nutrition Policy implementation in Tamil Nadu was reviewed during the meetings taken by MOS with senior officers of Social Welfare Department of Tamil Nadu on 28th December, 1999. The State Government was advised to utilise Women Development Cooperatives for production of energy food for 0-2 year old children for the entire ICDS in the State.

6.11.4 A Brainstorming Workshop on ‘Improving Nutrition of the Rural Poor Through Community Based Food Processing’ was organised at Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore on 6th August, 1999.

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Chapter 7

Other Programmes and Activities

GIA to Research, Publication and Monitoring

7.1.1 The Department of Women and Child Development under its scheme of Grant-in-Aid for Research and publication, sponsors research studies in the field of welfare and development of women and children, keeping in view the plan, policies, programmes and emerging problems requiring urgent public intervention. The grants cover research for development of innovative programmes or for testing the feasibility and efficacy of programmes and services and for sponsoring workshops/seminars which help in formulating research proposals, dissemination of research findings or situational analysis helpful in planning, programming and review of implementation.

7.1.2 Keeping in view the experience gained by the Department in implementation of the scheme over the years, the changing and dynamic role of the Department, this need to focus on specific areas of concern for women and children and to rationalize various schemes having similar objectives, the schemes under which research/evaluation studies, workshops etc are being sponsored by the department have been amalgamated and the nomenclature of the existing scheme launched in 1974 has been changed to "Grant in Aid for Research, Publication and Monitoring".

7.1.3 The scope of the Scheme has been widened to cover additional activities such as a) innovative activities like, setting up of Chairs in the Universities/Institutions on Women and Child, Fellowships for academic work, Lectures on major topics of the day, b) monitoring of women schemes, c) strengthening capacity of institutions for monitoring women’s schemes d) training of personnel engaged in research & monitoring. Under the scheme, Research Institutes, Universities, Institutes set-up by Central/State Governments./Public Sector Undertakings, Voluntary Organisations are assisted to undertake the activities mentioned above.

7.1.4 During the year under report, a number of research studies have been commissioned to quantify the allocations and target beneficiaries in various women specific schemes implemented by various Departments in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir. This would help in assessing the actual flow of benefits to women. The studies will also evaluate the impact of these schemes on the women reflecting on the changes brought out in their lives and help in augmenting allocation of funds in better run schemes.

7.1.5 During the year 1998-99, a total of 26 studies and 8 workshops/conferences were sponsored. During the year under report, 5 studies and 11 workshops / conferences have been sponsored till 28.2.2000. Out of the revised allocation of 50 lakhs in 1999-2000, an amount of Rs.18 lakhs has been spent till 28.2.2000. The list of studies sanctioned during 1999-2000 is given at Annexure-XII

Monitoring of Women Beneficiary Schemes

Monitoring of Women’s Programmes and Gender Mainstreaming in Government

7.2.1 This Department, as a nodal agency, undertakes Inter-Ministerial Review of the progress of 27 Beneficiary Oriented Schemes for women to review the progress of implementation of these schemes by different Central Ministries/Departments. Monitoring of these schemes is being done since 1986 on regular basis. Through such reviews, necessary improvements in the pace of implementation of these programmes and remedial measures for rectifying the lacunae observed are taken up wherever, needed. A list of 27 Beneficiary Oriented Schemes being presently monitored under the existing mechanism is placed at Annexure-XIII

7.2.2 On the initiative of this Department, the process of monitoring the implementation of 27 Beneficiary Oriented Schemes for Women was reviewed by the PMO. It was decided that important schemes of the other Departments/Ministries and aspects which have an impact on the lives of women, should be covered under the review. The existing review committee has been renamed as Committee for Monitoring of Gender Mainstreaming in Government to reflect the changed focus. The PMO has since intervened with the concerned Secretaries to review their schemes and give concrete suggestions in this regard.

7.2.3 Under the point No.12 of the Twenty Point Programme (TPP) on ‘Equality for Women’ an Evaluatory Report has been prepared, based on certain demographic and development indicators, which reflect on the situation of women. This analytical report reflects upon women’s socio-economic, health, education, employment status and participation in decision making.


7.2.4 During the year, the Department has brought out a hand book ‘Schemes for Assistance- A Handbook’ giving details of its schemes including formats for applications, to facilitate officials and NGOs at the grass root levels in accessing information and benefiting from different schemes of this Department. Copies of this publication have been distributed amongst the designated block level officers, DM/Collectors, District Social Welfare Officers and other concerned agencies at the State/U.T. levels to enable a larger number of women to take advantage of these schemes. Another publication giving similar details on schemes for women implemented by other Ministries/Departments has also been prepared which is in the process of being printed.

7.2.5 A pamphlet has also been prepared giving brief details of the schemes for women implemented by the Department which will be translated in regional languages besides Hindi and English and will be distributed to all the Anganwadi Centres.

Building up Gender sensitive data bases and statistical system

7.2.6 As a result of a process of consultation with State Governments and economists / academicians, the Department has short listed 18 indicators at district level in the Indian situation to facilitate monitoring the status of women. District-wise data on these indicators is being collected by different states and UTs and efforts are being made to cross check the availability and reliability of data through visits by experts. This has been started as a preliminary exercise for developing a Gender Development Index (GDI)

Gender Sensitization of Census 2001

7.2.7 The Department is also working towards gender sensitization of Census-2001, and has sent recommendations for implementation to the Register General of India (RGI). Efforts are also being made to gender sensitize the Training and Media Strategies of the Census to facilitate better reporting of women’s work participation through Census. A special survey is also being undertaken in some States jointly by this Department and RGI for suggesting the same methodology in this regard.


7.3.1 Under most schemes of this Department, grants are given to voluntary organizations for the purpose of implementing projects. However, many voluntary organizations also need some support to maintain their central office so that their activities can be carried out smoothly and efficiently. The Department of Women & Child Development, therefore, has a scheme for extending maintenance grant to voluntary organizations expressly for maintaining their central offices.

7.3.2 Under this scheme, grants not exceeding Rs. 50,000/- per annum can be given to an organisation subject to certain conditions for maintenance of central office to co-ordinate various activities for women, social awareness, sanitation and hygiene and nutrition education with special emphasis on pre-school children, dissemination of knowledge of family welfare, immunization, nutrition etc.

Information and Mass Education Activities

7.4.1 The Media Unit of the Department aims to create awareness about issues concerning the development of women and children by giving wide publicity to the policies, programmes and developmental activities formulated and implemented by the Department. This objective is being achieved through multi-media publicity campaigns for which the electronic and print media are effectively being used. Outdoor publicity activities are also undertaken to inform, educate and motivate people for bringing about attitudinal changes to achieve social development goals. Specific objectives include the mobilisation of public opinion on issues pertaining to the girl child, the holistic development of children, women’s empowerment, early child development, nutrition, equal status for women and social evils like child marriage, dowry, sexual abuse of the girl child, exploitation of women and children etc. Media activities are also undertaken to promote positive social attitudes such as better pre-natal care, health and nutritional needs of the child as well as care of expectant women and nursing mothers etc.

Dissemination Services

7.4.2 Copies of various schemes administered by the Department were isued to various Non-Govermental Organisations and Institutions engaged in the developmental activities for women and children.

7.4.3 Since postal stationery such as Post cards and Inland letter cards are used by a very large number of people, social messages have been printed on postal stationery for wide publicity.

7.4.4 The policies, programmes and achievements of the Department have been highlighted through newspaper advertisements issued from time to time.

Financial Allocation

7.4.5 An amount of Rs.200 lakhs has been allocated for multi-media activities during 1999-2000 and the funds are proposed to be utilised to the maximum extent for publicity of policies, programme and developmental activities related to issues concerning the development of women and children.

Nodal Agency for Programmes of Department of Women and Child Development

The Department of Women & Child Development has been depending upon State Governments for pre - sanction appraisal and monitoring of its various programmes. It was observed that in some cases, the State Governments took considerable time for their appraisal and monitoring reports which, in turn, delayed the projects proportionately. Moreover, it was inconvenient for the project implementing agencies to submit their proposals at the State Headquarters.

In order to make the process simpler, faster and easier, the Child Development Project Officer (CDPO) who is the Block level Officer for implementation of ICDS projects, was identified as the Nodal Officer for all programmes of this Department. The CDPOs will disseminate information on all programmes of this Department, other Departments of Government of India and State Government related to women and children. Project implementing agencies can submit their proposals to the CDPOs who are required to send their inspection report to the concerned State Government and this Department within 30 days. The State Governments have three months time to send their comments. The CDPOs will supervise implementation of the projects and send periodical inspection reports.

Administrative Improvement

7.5.1 Due priority was given to the administrative improvement in the Department. The position regarding various O & M activities viz. reports/returns, review of rules/regulations, consolidation of orders/instructions, allocation of work among different Sections/Desks, channels of submission and final level of disposal and time limits for disposal of cases were reviewed. An action plan of the O.M & M activities was drawn up. Instructions received from the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances from time to time, are being followed in the Department to improve the efficiency in the day to day working of the Department.

Public And Staff Grievances

7.6.1 As regards the public grievances received in the Department, the same were attended to on priority and regularly monitored through a monthly return to the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances. Instructions to set up a public grievances redressal machinery have also been issued to the subordinate offices of the Department. A Staff and Public grievances redressal officer has also been appointed in the Department.

7.6.2 The Department has initiated various steps to redress staff grievances. A suitable mechanism exists in this Department to redress grievances of staff at all levels and at regular intervals. Being a compact Departrment, the inter-personal communication is very informal which also substantially helps in speedy redressal of grievances.

15-Point Programme for the Welfare of Minorities

7.7.1 The Department is implementing various schemes in 41 districts of 11 educationally backward states having minority concentration areas as given in Annexure -XIV. The schemes/programmes in the minority concentration areas are:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Socio-Economic Programmes
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Schemes for Creches for Working and Ailing Mothers
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Condensed Courses of Education and Vocational Training (CCE&VT)
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Awareness Generation Programmes
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Early Childhood Education
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Balwadi Nutrition Programmes

Environmental Awareness

7.8.1 While implementing the ICDS programme for women and children, environmental dimensions receive special attention. The following topics on Environmental Pollution have been included in the curriculum of training of ICDS functionaries :

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Environmental Awareness ;
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Use of environmental resources in organizing pre-school activities ;
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Audio-visual presentation for use of environmental resources ;
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Planting trees and plants in the training centres;
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Cleanliness and sanitation of the home environment ;
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Role of the community in creating a healthy environment for children.

Outstanding Audit Objections

7.9.1 As per the latest Audit Inspection Reports received by the Department of Women and Child Development, there are 89 paras pending for settlement. Reply in respect of two paras has been sent to the Audit Office with a request to drop the paras.

Computer Based Management Information Systems Developed by National Informatics Centre (NIC) for Department of Women and Child Development

7.10.1 National Informatics Centre (NIC) has established a computer centre in the Department of Women and Child Development and has installed a Pentium Processor based Windows NT Server and a Pentium Processor based Unix Server. Local Area Network has been established in the Department and various facilities like information sharing, electronic mail, graphical user interface (GUI) based INTERNET surfing have been provided. NIC continued to provide software, hardware and consultancy support to Department of Women and Child Development in developing computer based Management Information Systems. A team of officers of NIC is working in close coordination with the officials of the Department. Highlights of the year 1999-2000 are as follows.

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

7.10.2 MIS on ICDS is one of the software packages, which has been developed for catering to the needs of State, District, Block and Anganwadi Centres of ICDS covering the entire hierarchy of all the administrative levels starting from National to Village levels.

Role of National Informatics Centre

Implemented the ICDS Software in various States, Districts and centres of NIC

7.10.3 Compilation of monthly CDPO’s data received through NICNET from State and District Departments of Women and Child for generation of monthly progress reports.

7.10.4 Detailed Orientation and Training Sessions have been conducted for State Government officials (in Calcutta and Patna).

7.10.5 A training programme for the officials of 9 State Government was organised by NIPCCD in September 1999. Thirty Government officials participated who were trained by NIC officers.

Local Area Network (At Shastri Bhavan and Jeevan Deep Building)

7.10.6 Local Area Network has been established at both the havans. Existing computer systems in the Department with compatible network card (Ethernet card with UTP port) have been configured and put on LAN at Shastri Bhavan. Till date around 60 computers have been put on LAN and RF link connectivity has been provided to all these nodes to have Internet and E-mail Access round the clock.

Implementation of IT Plan in the Department

7.10.7 An IT plan had been prepared and submitted in the previous year. The department has approved an outlay of about Rs. 80 Lakhs for the current financial year for the procurement of hardware, networking, software development and user training. During the current year the department has procured 60 computers for various officers of the department.

Website for the Department

7.10.8 A Web Page for the Department of Women and Child Development has been re-designed and new information has been added to make it up-to-date in its contents. The import information that has been added during the current year includes the information and proforma concerning food and nutrition board, NORAD, Working Women’s Hostel etc.

Y2K Compliance

7.10.9 Various software packages developed and implemented in the Department of Women and Child Development have been thoroughly examined and made Y2K compliant. All computer hardware procured by the department has been made Y2K compliant. The Office of the Minister of State for Women & Child Development has been provided with VIP references Monitoring System, File Movement & Tracking System, apart from Appointments Monitoring System for the Minister.

7.10.10 A feasibility study has been done for Rashtriya Mahila Kosh for requirement of computers, Local Area Networking, WAN connectivity requirements of organisation and development of software. This project has been taken up as a paid project and is in the process of implementation.

7.10.11 Design and Development of the loan monitoring system for Rashtriya Mahila Kosh is under progress.

Budget and Expenditutre

7.10.12 Budget and Expenditure of the Department has been computerised and monthly statement on schemewise and sub headwise budget availability and expenditure thereon is generated regularly.

Telecommuting Plan of NIC

7.10.13 Under this plan all the officers above the level of Joint Secretary have been given computers by the Department and NIC has provided the dialup connectivity. Accordingly the residential connections have been configured in all the residences of these officers for access of internet and email.

Parliament Questions & Answers

7.10.14 As per the decision taken by Parliament Secretariat, regarding the transmission of Parliament Questions online from the current session of Parliament, the Parliament Section’s officials have been trained on the creation of Parliament questions and answers text files and their transmission through internet. An exclusive user-ID has been created for this purpose and is being used in such transmissions.

Software Maintenance

7.10.15 Necessary support has been provided in the maintenance and smooth functioning of packages viz., Stores Inventory System, Payroll, Public Grievances Information System, Mahila Samriddhi Yojana, Balika Samriddhi Yojana, VIP references, Budget Information System etc.

Training Programmes Conducted

7.10.16 On the job training programmes have been organised from time to time. Necessary training has been imparted to senior officers of the Department in surfing the INTERNET, sending electronic mail, sharing of information, etc. About 70 personnel of the Department have been trained on Office Automation packages at NICHQ and in house.

Financial Assistance to Voluntary Organisations

7.11.1 A list of voluntary organisations who have received a recurring grant of Rs. 1 lakh and above from the Department for various activities in the field of women and child development during the year under report is given at Annexure-XV

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Chapter 8

National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development

8.1.1 The National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD) is an autonomous organization with its Headquarters in New Delhi. It functions under the aegis of the Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development.

8.1.2 The objectives of the Institute are to develop and promote voluntary action in social development take a comprehensive view of child development and develop and promote programmes in pursuance of the National Policy for Children; develop measures for coordination of governmental and voluntary action in social development; and evolve a framework and perspective for organizing children’s programmes through governmental and voluntary efforts.

8.1.3 With a view to achieving the above objectives, the Institute conducts research and evaluation studies; organizes training programmes, seminars, workshops, conferences ; and provides documentation and information services in the field of public cooperation and child development. The Institute is the apex body for training of functionaries of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme. It provides technical advice and consultancy to government and voluntary agencies in promoting and implementing policies and programmes for child development and voluntary action. In addition, it collaborates with regional and international agencies, research institutions, universities and technical bodies.

8.1.4 The General Body and the Executive Council are its two main constitutional bodies. The General Body formulates policy for management and administration of the Institute. In addition, there are committees to oversee academic programmes and administrative matters.

8.1.5 The Institute at its Headquarters at New Delhi functions through six Divisions, namely, Public Cooperation, Child Development, Women’s Development, Training, Monitoring and Evaluation and Common Services.

8.1.6 Recognising that in a country of such vast dimensions, an Institute located in Delhi will not be able to cater to the field level regional requirements in terms of training, research, consultancy etc., the Institute set up Regional Centres at Guwahati (1978), Bangalore (1980) and Lucknow (1982). It has also identified a number of institutions to cater to the training needs of child care workers in different States and Union Territories.

Programmes and Activities

8.2.1 In pursuance of the recommendations of the Committee on reorganisation of the Institute approved by the Executive Council in February 1988, for the prioritisation of its programmes and activities, the central focus of the Institute is the integrated development of the child and the mother in its most comprehensive and varied forms. This recommendation of the Committee has been kept in view while planning programmes for 1999-2000 also.

8.2.2 The programmes and activities of the Institute may be grouped under the broad categories of regular training programmes, training under Udisha Project of ICDS, training programmes under other projects and research and documentation in the area of Public Cooperation and Child Development.

Regular Training Programmes

8.3.1 Under regular training programmes, the Institute organises orientation/ training courses for representatives of voluntary organisations and officials of government departments engaged in implementation of programmes of mother care, child development and women’s development. The Institute also conducts programmes on subjects of topical interest in these fields to highlight the role of voluntary organizations and government departments in tackling emerging social problems including problems having a bearing on welfare and development of children and strengthening the service delivery system. These programmes are aimed at creating consciousness in the community about the needs of the child and mother and help channelising it into concrete action.

8.3.2 The Institute has been consistently trying to maximise the outreach of its regular programmes for officials and non-officials engaged in the area of women and child development with the resources available with it. During the year 1998-99 the Institute organised 93 programmes against the target of 60 programmes. These programmes were attended by 3195 participants against a target of 1800. During the current year, i.e. 1999-2000, the Institute has organised 68 programmes upto February 2000 against the target of 60 programmes for the year. 1986 participants attended these programmes against the target of 1800 participants for the year.

8.3.3 In the year 1999-2000 the Institute has undertaken several new initiatives in making its training programmes more interesting and effective by laying emphasis on participatory methods of training. Its training programmes have covered some new areas in terms of subject matter of the courses.

8.3.4 The training programmes cover the following areas:


triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Use of Computer in training situation
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Stress on participatory training method
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Emphasis on innovative methods of training
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Child’s rights, policies and legislation
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Women’s empowerment, capacity building and micro-credit
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Holistic approach to the development of adolescent girls
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Micro-nutrients for personnel of voluntary organizations
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Organising school mental health services for school teachers
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Management of child development programmes
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Gender research techniques and participatory monitoring
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Role of civil society in social development
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Nutrition for trainers of Panchayati Raj institutions
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Grant-in-aid to voluntary organizations
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Child mental health services
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Gender justice and the role of police
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Corporate initiative towards child development
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Programmes and services for urban children
triw1.gif (1005 bytes)  Nutrition and health of women and young children
triw1.gif (1005 bytes)  Prevention and early detection of childhood disabilities
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Application of PRA techniques in community participation
triw1.gif (1005 bytes)  Media professionals on issues concerning children
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Consultation on GO-VO partnership
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Changing pattern of paediatric illness
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Gender issues in women reproductive health with special focus on HIV/AIDS
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Gender sensitisation of national machinery
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Elected women members of panchayati raj institutions and urban local bodies
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Qualitative methods in social sciences
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Monitoring and evaluation in social science research
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Corporate initiative towards child development
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Literacy and creativity in rural and urban school dropout children
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Women’s work and child care
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Survey and reporting techniques

Training Under Udisha Project of ICDS

8.4.1 As the apex body for the training of ICDS functionaries of ICDS programme, the Institute has been entrusted with the responsibility of planning, coordination and monitoring training of ICDS functionaries, building up training infrastructure and capabilities of institutions engaged in training of ICDS functionaries, organizing training of trainers, designing, revising, standardising and updating syllabi for training of various categories of functionaries, preparation of model programme schedules, and preparation, procurement and dissemination of training materials including audio-visual aids. The Institute also provides feedback to the Department of Women and Child Development, Government of India and the concerned departments of State Governments/UTs on matters pertaining to the training of ICDS functionaries.

8.4.2 The training of Child Development Project Officers (CDPOs) is conducted at the Institute’s Headquarters in New Delhi and its three Regional Centres located at Bangalore, Guwahati and Lucknow. The training of Supervisors is provided by selected training centres known as Middle Level Training Centres (MLTCs) which are located in different States. While the training of trainers of CDPOs and Supervisors is imparted at the Institute’s Headquarters, the training of trainers of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) is given through MLTCs. The Institute also provides specific skill training in the areas of pre-school education, growth monitoring, nutrition and health education, community participation etc. to trainers of AWTCs and MLTCs.

8.4.3 ‘Udisha’ is a ICDS training project formulated by the Department of Women and Child Development. Keeping in view its importance and impact on the quality of ICDS programme, the World Bank has agreed to provide financial assistance under the overall World Bank assisted Women and Child Development Project. The Project envisages upward revision of financial norms, integration and co-ordination of training of ICDS functionaries and revision of training syllabus.

8.4.4 In the emerging scenario, under project Udisha, it is recognized that NIPCCD will respond to the national training needs as well as of the State/region specific needs of the ICDS programme. The Institute will coordinate and oversee the implementation of academic aspects of the project throughout the country and continue to provide technical inputs to the Department.

8.4.5 During the year 1999-2000 (upto 31 January,2000), the Institute imparted job training to 308 CDPOs/ACDPOs and refresher training to 240 CDPOs/ACDPOs. NIPCCDs Regional Centres provided job and refresher training to 46 and 50 supervisors respectively. One hundred and twenty three Instructors of AWTCs/MLTCs received training in different courses. A total of 232 senior officers participated in review meet/training programmes during the period under report. Besides, 29 Executive Heads of AWTCs attended the training organised during the period referred to above. In addition, the Institute organised training programmes on World Bank Procurement Procedures.

Training Programmes under Other Projects

8.5.1 Recently, the Department of Women and Child Development has identified NIPCCD to act as a National Level Lead Training Agency for Rural Women’s Development and Empowerment Project which is currently being implemented in six states in collaboration with IFAD & IDA. Besides this, the Institute is also engaged in organizing training programmes for functionaries implementing various schemes such as IMY, RMK &STEP etc.

8.6.1 A comparative status of programmes organized by the Institute in 1998-99 and 1999-2000 is at Annexure - XVI

8.6.2 A list of training/orientation programmes organised by the Institute during 1999-2000 (upto January,2000) is at
Annexure -XVII

Research and Documentation

Research/Evaluation Studies and Other Projects

8.7.1 The Institute undertakes research and evaluation studies as an integral part of its work. It has adopted a policy on research, which has the approval of its Executive Council. The following areas identified in the policy provide a broad framework for research work of the Institute:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Research for policy formulation and programme development;

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Research and surveys for identification of needs and problems in the area of voluntary action, mother care and child development;

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Assessment of efficacy and impact of on-going programmes for promotion of voluntary action, mother care and child development, identification of bottlenecks in the implementation, service delivery of various programmes and its mid-course corrections and

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Research, surveys and evaluation studies for identification of training needs in the area of voluntary action, mother care and child development, development of curriculum, training materials and aids.

8.7.2 During the year 1999-2000 (upto February 2000) the Institute completed the following Research/Evaluation Studies and Other Projects :

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Aggression in Children: A Study

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Infant Feeding Practices in ICDS and Non-ICDS in Rural Areas of Uttar  Pradesh -  A Comparative Study

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A Comparative Study of Pre-school Education Components in Selected ICDS Projects of Hindi Speaking States

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Contribution of Voluntary Organisations in Child Welfare/Development - A Study

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A Comparative Study on Community Participation in ICDS Projects run by a Voluntary Organisation and Government

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Preparation and Developing of Print Materials (Brochures) for Creating Awareness in Community about Prevention, Early Detection and Management of Mental Retardation among Children

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Preparation of Module on Gender Training for Women’s Empowerment

8.7.3 Some of the important on-going studies/projects approved by the Academic Committee earlier and which are at different stages of progress are listed below:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Child Abuse in Guwahati: A Study of Voluntary Agencies in the area of Child Welfare in North -Eastern Region;

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A Micro-level Study of Birth Weight and Neo-natal Deaths in Hospital Born Children in Hospitals of Guwahati City

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Evaluation of Utilisation of Medicine-Kit Provided to Anganwadi Workers

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Girl Child in Adoption

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Scholastic Backwardness : An Analysis of Children Coming to Child Guidance Clinic

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Situational Analysis of Indian Women

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Research Study on Poriawadis in Jhabua District - An Evaluation

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Impact of ICDS - A Study

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Utilisation of Monthly Progress Report Outputs - A Study

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Knowledge and Practices of Adolescent Girls regarding Hygiene during Menstruation

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A Study of Child Welfare Institutions in Karnataka

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A study of Functionaries of Self Help Groups in the Southern Region


8.8.1 The Resource Centre on Children (RCC) is a specialized research and reference center on children, women and disadvantaged groups. It is actively involved in development research and networking activities and provides a comprehensive perspective about the status, needs and welfare/developmental programmes of children and women. The RCC Data Base has bibliographic details of documents received and indexed. The facility of ‘online-search’ in the Centre provides the users an easy access to information. Besides these RCC has prepared bibliographies and reading lists on ‘Monitoring and Evaluation’ and ‘Qualitative Research Methodology’ by the library.

8.8.2 RCC also brings out ‘RCC Newsclip’ every month and ‘Current Awareness’ (library) and ‘RCC Research Bulletin’ on a quarterly basis. Currently, RCC is carrying out a project entitled ‘Children in Difficult Circumstances: Summaries of Research’.

8.8.3 During the year 1999-2000 (upto February 2000), RCC collected about 360 unpublished documents and added 180 books to the library. It subscribed to 96 journals/magazines and 17 newspapers.

8.8.4 During the period under report, the Institute brought out 23 publications comprising Research Report and Training materials prepared for regular training programmes and training of ICDS functionaries.


Financial Allocations

8.9.1 The outlay for the Institute is Rs. 3.50 crore under Plan and Rs. 5.20 crore under Non-Plan and the Revised Estimates under plan and non-plan are Rs. 3.42 crore and Rs. 5.00 crore respectively.

8.9.2 The Institute has been assigned the Udisha Project by the Department of Women and Child Development. The financial requirement of the Project Udisha proposed to be undertaken by NIPCCD during 1999-2000 is of the order of Rs.187.75 lakh for Udisha Project Programmes. An expenditure of Rs.39.18 lakh has been incurred till 25 February 2000.

Outstanding Audit Objections

8.10.1 Twelve audit objections are outstanding. Most of the observations are of a procedural nature. The Audit of Accounts of the Institute for 1998-99 by Director General of Audit, Central Revenue has been completed in the month of August, 1999. The report is still awaited.

Position of Reservation

8.11.1 The Institute follows the reservation policy of Government of India for SCs, STs and OBCs.

Meetings of Committees Working in the Institute

Academic Committee

8.12.1 This Committee deals with all matters concerning academic work and programmes of the Institute. The 27th meeting of the Academic Committee was convened on 7 April, 1999 to consider proposals of training programmes for the year 1999-2000.

Promotion of Use of Hindi

8.13.1 In order to promote use of Hindi during 1999-2000 several measures were taken by the Institute. These included cash award scheme for officers for giving dictation in Hindi, scheme for incentives allowance to stenographers/typists for doing their official work in Hindi, nomination of officers for Hindi training, celebration of Hindi fortnight from 1 to 15 September, 1999, convening of meetings of Official language Implementation Committee at the Institute on regular basis and translation of important documents in Hindi. Besides, the Institute has implemented a scheme for cash award to faculty members for organizing courses and preparing all course material in Hindi. In January 2000, the Lucknow Regional Centre of the Institute was given the Second Regional Official Language Award, Ministry of Home Affairs. The award carries a shield and citation. The Institute also organised two Hindi Workshops in December, 1999.

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Chapter 9

Central Social Welfare Board

9.1.1 The years in the immediate aftermath of Independence saw a number of Government initiatives aimed at strengthening welfare administration in the country. The establishment of the Central Welfare Board in August 1953 was an important step taken by Government with the objective of delivering welfare services to the most backward and deserving sections of the society. The CSWB was envisaged as a bridge that would link Government resources and funds with the energy and vitality of the voluntary sector. In the years following its establishment, the CSWB set up several schemes and projects, particularly, those providing for integrated services for women and children, which would later become the model for wider programmes taken up for universalisation all over the country.

9.1.2 As the development idiom in the country has moved from welfare to development to empowerment, so too, the focus of the CSWB has widened in scope. Today, the CSWB has metamorphosed into one of the major national level organisations dedicated to its major objective of collaborating with the NGO sector for the welfare, development and empowerment of women, children and marginalised groups in society.

9.1.3 The CSWB provides support to NGOs under a variety of programmes to facilitate and strengthen their role in empowering women through education and training, through collective mobilisation and awareness creation, through income generation facilities and by the provision of support services


9.2.1 The Board is presently headed by Smt. Mridula Sinha, who assumed office on 2nd November, 1998

9.2.2 The CSWB has a 51-member General Body and a 15-member Executive Committee. These bodies were constituted by Government for a 3 year term in 1999. The composition of the General Body and Executive Committee is as follows :

General Body :

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Chairperson, CSWB
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) All Chairpersons of State Social Welfare Boards (30)
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Representatives from Parliament - Lok Sabha - 2 & Rajya Sabha - 1
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 5 Professionals ( one each from Law, Medicine, Social Work, Education and Social Development)
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 3 Eminent persons with extensive experience in social work
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Representatives from Ministries/Departments/Govt. of India - Department of Women & Child Development, Department of Rural Development, Department of Education, Planning Commission, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Department of Family Welfare
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Executive Director, CSWB

Executive Committee :

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Chairperson, CSWB
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Chairpersons of State Social Welfare Advisory Boards - 5 by rotation
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Representatives from Ministries/Departments of the Govt. of India - Department of Women & Child Development, Deptt. of Family Welfare, Deptt. of Rural Development & Poverty Alleviation, Deptt. of Education and Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Two Professionals
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Executive Director, CSWB



Condensed Courses of Education and Vocational Training Programme

9.3.1 The schemes of Condensed Courses of Education and Vocational Training Programme for needy women in rural, hilly and tribal areas were started in 1958 and 1975 respectively. These schemes were revised in 1988-89 in order to provide relevant educational qualifications and skills so that women could become eligible for paid work opportunities. The revised scheme is being implemented from 1990-91.

9.3.2 Under the scheme of Condensed Courses, voluntary organisations are given grants to conduct courses of 2 years duration to enable women of the age of 15 plus to pass Matric, Middle and Primary level examinations. Under the vocational training programme, grants are provided for vocations such as dress designing, computer courses, typesetting, batik, handloom weaving nursery teachers training, stenography, etc.

9.3.3 During the year 1999-2000 an amount of Rs.114.68 lakh has so far been sanctioned by the CSWB to organise 129 Condensed Courses benefiting 3225 candidates up to 31st January 2000. In addition, the CSWB has also delegated authority to various State Social Welfare Boards to sanction continuation batches of Condensed Courses for which funds are provided by the CSWB.

9.3.4 The CSWB received Govt. funds under the NORAD Scheme to implement Vocational Training programmes. A total of 347 courses were sanctioned covering 6185 beneficiaries. An amount of Rs.438.66 lakhs has been sanctioned upto 31.1.2000.

Awareness Generation Programme (AGP)

9.4.1 In order to raise the general awareness of rural and poor women, the Awareness Generation Programme (AGP) was introduced by the Central Social Welfare Board in 1986-87. The broad aim of this programme is to create awareness among rural and poor women on various social issues so that they can realise their potential in the family and society. Since 1993-94, special emphasis is being given to the participation of women in Panchayati Raj institutions and their role in national integration and communal harmony. Under this scheme NGOs are provided with grants to hold awareness camps for women. An NGO can conduct camps of varying durations from 1-5 days in each area according to local needs. The local Panchayats are also involved in conducting the camps. The CSWB’s emphasis has been on involvement of genuine grassroots level and activist organisations in implementation of the awareness programme. The total amount sanctioned upto 31.1.2000 is Rs.94.67 lakhs for 838 camps covering 13080 beneficiaries. This programme has been partially decentralised and State Social Welfare Boards have sanctioned funds to NGOs upto an amount of Rs.20,000 @ Rs.2,000 per camp.

9.4.2 The CSWB observed the Year 1999 as the ‘Samaj Kalyan Chetna Parv’ on the year of Awareness Generation. During this year a special calendar of activities was drawn up and the Central and State Boards implemented a wide array of programmes. Rallies and meetings were conducted and other interventions undertaken in observance of this Parv. The monthwise themes were - March: Awareness, April: Health, May: Working Women and children of working women, June: Capacity Building and Training, July: Advocacy and Information dissemination, August: Economic Empowerment, September: Nutrition, October: Aged, November: Children, December: Violence against women. A large number of NGOs and State level organisations were involved in the ‘Parv’.


Socio-Economic Programme

9.5.1 Under the Socio Economic Programme (SEP), initiated in 1958, voluntary organisations are given financial assistance to take up a wide variety of income generating activities which include the production of industrial components in ancillary units, handlooms, handicrafts, agro-based activities such as animal husbandry, sericulture and fisheries, and self-employment ventures like vegetable or fish vending etc. The scheme of Socio-Economic Programme has been reviewed and modified in order to ensure better and more effective implementation of the programme. Women’s organisations, organisations working for the handicapped, women’s cooperatives and institutions like jails, Nari Niketans are eligible for grants under this programme. Grants to the extent of 85% of the Project cost are provided by the Board, the balance being the matching contribution by the NGOs.

9.5.2 In the year under review upto 31.1.2000, a sum of Rs.9.27 lakhs was released under the programme.


9.6.1 The provision of support services to women is a major thrust area of the CSWB. The CSWB is implementing the following schemes under which different types of services are provided to working women:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Creches for Children of Working and Ailing Mothers

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Working Women’s Hostels

Creches for Children of Working and Ailing Mothers

9.7.1 The programme of Creches for Children of Working and Ailing Mothers provides day care services to the children (0 to 5 years of age) of mothers from lower income group families who are working or ailing. Financial assistance upto Rs.18,480 as recurring grant is provided per unit of 25 children. New units are provided Rs.4,000 for purchase of equipment as a non-recurring grant. Continuing units are given Rs.2,000 every five years for replenishment of equipment. During 1999-2000, an amount of Rs.17.99 crores has been targeted for release to 9738 units and Rs.14.95 crores has been sanctioned for 8348 units as on 31.1.2000.

Working Women’s Hostels

9.8.1 In order to provide accommodation for women who are working away from their homes, the Board provides assistance to voluntary organisations for the running of Working Women’s Hostels. Under this programme, the Board provides financial assistance for the salaries of a Matron and Chowkidar, provision of recreational facilities, and rent subsidy for hostels running in rented buildings. The annual grant to NGOs under this scheme varies from Rs.40,000 to Rs.50,000 for a Hostel, depending upon the class of city or town. During the year under report, grants of Rs.6.52 lakhs for 18 hostels have been released upto 31.1.2000.


Voluntary Action Bureau and Family Counselling Centres

9.9.1 The main objective of the Voluntary Action Bureau (VAB) and Family Counselling Centres (FCC) is to provide counselling and rehabilitative services to women and children who are victims of family mal-adjustments and atrocities. The role of the VAB has been redefined with effect from 1992-93 with its major thrust on monitoring and systematic expansion of the Family Counselling Centre Programme through coordination between Governmental and non-Governmental agencies, creating publicity and awareness about atrocities against women, conducting research on social problems affecting the status of women and organising training programmes for FCC counsellors. Since training forms an integral component of the Scheme, intensive orientation training is given to all new counsellors within six months of their joining the centre, while trained counsellors are given refresher courses annually to update their professional skills. Training is also conducted for office-bearers of the institutions.

9.9.2 A need has been felt for professional monitoring and evaluation of the functioning of FCCs and also for regular training of counsellors posted in the FCCs. Schools of Social Work have been involved in the implementation of the Scheme as nodal agencies to provide monitoring and evaluation and training services. 17 such nodal agencies were identified in different States.

9.9.3 The FCC programme has served a vital function in mending family relations through systematic counselling. Assistance is given to NGOs to run the FCCs. The assistance is in the form of grants which cover honorarium for counsellors and costs towards other contingencies. Grants upto Rs.1 lakh can be provided to an NGO for running an FCC. During 1999-2000, an amount of Rs.3.5 crores has been allocated for the VAB/FCC programme. Up till 31.1.2000, 346 FCCs have been sanctioned grants and Rs.1.99 crores have been released upto 31.1.2000, which includes Rs.2.72 lakh to nodal agencies for monitoring and training.

Legal Literacy Camps

9.10.1 The objective of Legal Literacy Camps is to create legal awareness among people especially among women with respect to their rights and laws pertaining to women in particular. These camps also provide information about the various supportive programmes run by the Government and NGOs for availing these rights. Since Family Counselling Centres are providing supportive services to women, Legal Literacy Camps are sanctioned to the FCCs @ Rs.2,000/- per camp. During 99-2000, 4428 LLCs have been sanctioned to 269 FCCs and a sum of Rs. 32.95 lakhs has been released till 31.1.2000.

Short Stay Homes

9.11.1 The scheme of Short Stay Homes provides temporary shelter to women & children: i) who are being forced in prostitution; ii) who, as a result of family tension or discord are made to leave their homes and have no means of subsistence or social protection from exploitation and/or are facing litigation on account of marital disputes; iii) who have been sexually assaulted and are facing problems of readjustment in the family or society; iv) who are victims of mental maladjustment, emotional disturbances or social ostracism; v) those who run away from their homes due to family problems, mental or physical torture and need shelter, psychiatric treatment and counselling for their rehabilitation in society.

9.11.2 The scheme of Short Stay Homes for women and girls, which was earlier being implemented by the Deptt. of Women & Child Development was handed over to the Central Social Welfare Board for monitoring and running of the programme w.e.f. April, 1999. Grants for new homes, however, continue to be sanctioned by the Deptt. of Women & Child Development.

9.11.3 Grants for 186 Short Stay Homes were sanctioned and Rs.3.29 crores was released for these homes uptill 31.1.2000.

Mahila Mandal Programme

9.12.1 The Mahila Mandal Programme came into being in 1961-62 in those areas where there were no voluntary organisations to take up welfare services for women and children. These groups of women function essentially like NGOs and they form an entry point for comprehensive welfare services to be taken to the grass-roots level. Out of the total expenditure on Mahila Mandals 75% is borne by CSWB and the remaining 25% by the organisations themselves. This is a decentralised programme of the Board and is being administered by the State Boards. During 1999-2000 an amount of Rs. 1.73 crores was allocated for 827 centres, covering 64832 beneficiaries.


Demonstration Projects

9.13.1 The Demonstration Projects provide nutrition, health, education and recreational facilities for children. In the year under report 11 projects are functioning in 11 States and a sum of Rs. 98.22 lakhs has been released upto 31.1.2000.


9.14.1 The provision of integrated services for women and children is being facilitated by CSWB through a number of specific area projects. The Welfare Extension Projects are multi-purpose projects which extend services such as pre-primary school education, craft activities for women, maternity services and recreational facilities in rural areas. At present, there are 44 projects with 333 centres in 5 states. In 1999-2000, an amount of Rs.80.61 lakhs has been released upto 31.1.2000. Expenditure on the Projects is shared between the CSWB and the concerned State Governments in the ratio of 2:1.

9.14.2 The Border Area Projects were started following the Chinese aggression in 1962 and Pakistan aggression in 1971. Tension in the border areas prompted the initiation and strengthening of welfare services in these areas with a view to promoting emotional and cultural integration with the rest of the country. At present, there are 87 projects with 425 centres in 14 states for which an amount of Rs.3.38 crores has been released to the State Board during the year 1999-2000, upto 31.1.2000. Expenditure on the Border Area Projects is also shared by the CSWB and the State Government in the ratio of 2:1.


9.15.1 The CSWB has a strength of 137 Field Officers, who are responsible for monitoring and evaluation. These Field Officers are placed in various State Social Welfare Advisory Boards.

9.15.2 There is also a Research, Evaluation and Statistics wing in the CSWB which is responsible for functions related to monitoring and evaluation of various programmes and the maintenance of a data bank on various indicators. During the year 1999-2000, the following monitoring and evaluation activities were undertaken by the CSWB:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) A computerised list of Voluntary Organisatons funded by Central Social Welfare Board has been compiled for the year 1998-99.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Regular updating of data bank related to Board’s programmes is in progress along with monitoring expenditure and programme progress in State Boards.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Computer facilities have been enhanced, Internet connectivity has been established, a personnel information system has been developed for Project staff with the help of ER&DCI Noida and software has been developed with the help of ET&T to facilitate disbursement of funds to State Boards.


9.16.1 The Board publishes 2 monthly magazines- ‘Social Welfare’ in English and ‘Samaj Kalyan’ in Hindi. During the year 1999-2000, ‘Social Welfare’ brought out issues on World Health Day, Women’s Health, Working Women, Capacity Building, Social Communication, Community Health and Food Security, the Aged, Street and Working Children, Violence against Women, Legal Rights of Women and Children. ‘Samaj Kalyan’ brought out issues on MCH, Health education, Working Women, Skill training, Women’s rights, Economic Empowerment of Women, Nutrition and Child Health, Aged in the new Millennium, ICDS, Violence against Women, Legal Rights of Women & Children.

9.16.2 Reports on Chetna Parv activities were brought out every month in both the magazines in 1999-2000 respectively. The web site of the Central Social Welfare Board has been hosted on the Internet. The inauguration of the site took place on 12th August, 99, the Foundation Day of the Board. Smt.Suman Krishan Kant inaugurated the web-site. The address of the site is The site contains information about the Board, the online version of Social Welfare magazine and an NGO database.

9.16.3 The CSWB also brought out an audio cassette of songs on the various themes of ‘Chetna Parv’. A 30 second TV spot on the theme of Voluntarism was also produced and telecast, in collaboration with the NFDC.


9.17.1 The progressive use of Hindi, the official language was strengthened during the year 1999-2000. During the period under report, meetings of the Official Language Implementation Committee were held and regular progress reports were sent to the Ministry and concerned offices.

9.17.2 An incentive scheme for original Hindi noting and drafting in official work was implemented during the year and cash prizes were given to the winners. A new incentive scheme has been developed for future implementation.

9.17.3 On the occasion of the Golden Jubilee Year of the Official Language, special arrangements were made to celebrate Rajbhasha Week in the Board’s office in September,99 during which an essay competition and a debate were organised.


9.18.1 The expenditure on State Board Establishment is met on 50:50 basis by the State Governments and CSWB. Under this head, an amount of Rs.3.61 crores has been sanctioned against which Rs.2.58 crores has been released as the CSWB’s share (upto 31.1.2000). During the year 1999-2000, an amount of Rs.6.00 lakhs was released to some State Boards for purchasing vehicles.


triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Dr. Durgabai Deshmukh Award : The CSWB has instituted an Award in the name of the founder Chairperson to recognise and honour innovative work done by voluntary organisations for the development and empowerment of women. The Award is given to one organisastion each year and carries a cash prize of Rs.1 lakh and a citation. During the year, 30 nominations were received from various States. The nominations were screened by a high level Committee headed by the First Lady of the country. The well known Mumbai-based organisation, Annapurna Mahila Mandal has been selected for the Award this year.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) National Conference on ‘Voluntarism and Social Development’ : The CSWB convened a National Conference of voluntary agencies, social work administrators and activists in New Delhi from 22 to 24 February, 2000 to consider and review the major emerging issues vis--vis the voluntary sector in the country. Nearly 200 delegates from all over the country participated in the Conference which was inaugurated by Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The 3 day Conference focused on 4 major themes : Voluntarism in the changing social scenario, Professionalism in the voluntary sector, Self Help and Community participation and Government-NGO interface. Several important recommendations and views have emerged from the deliberation at the Conference which will impact on the future interactions between the CSWB and its partners in the voluntary sector.

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Chapter 10

National Commission for Women

10.1.1 The National Commission for Women, a statutory body constituted on 31st January, 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990 has a wide ranging mandate to protect and promote the interests and safeguard the rights of women. During the year, the Commission continued to pursue its mandated role and activities, prominent among them being review of laws, looking into specific complaints of atrocities, denial of rights and harassment and exploitation of women for remedial action and to assist/restore their legitimate rights.

10.1.2 During the year under report the composition of the Commission was as follows:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Smt. Vibha Parthasarathi, Chairperson
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Dr. Syeda S. Hameed, Member
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Smt. Vijay Daksh, Member
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Dr. Poornima Advani, Member
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Kum. Sukeshi Oram, Member, upto 31.10.1999
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Dr.Indira Basavaraj, Member, upto 8.10.1999
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Smt. K. Santha Reddy, Member from 9.2.2000
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Kum. Anusuiya Uike, Member from 10.2.2000
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Smt. Binoo Sen, Member Secretary

10.2.1 During the year under review, the Commission received 1324 complaints related to various types of atrocities committed on women. These include the following cases:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 13- dowry deaths,
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 252 dowry harassment cases,
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 309 other types of harassment,
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 73 property related issues,
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 55 rape cases,
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 28 sexual exploitation cases
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) 21 kidnapping cases.

10.2.2 The Chairperson and Members visited different parts of the country for spot investigations to enquire into specific violations of the rights of women and harassment. These included enquiry into sexual harassment charges against the Principal, Delhi Public School, Faridabad; Sati incident, Mahoba (U.P.); sexual assault of Lalita Oraon; rape of Anjana Mishra in Cuttack (Orissa); atrocities against harijan women in Village Sanhauli (Bihar); atrocity in Chhapra (Bihar); child sexual abuse in Karvi (U.P.) In addition, they participated in seminars/conferences/workshops etc. NCW held public hearings on Minority women at Tezpur, Bangalore, Indore, Panipat, Mumbai, Bhadrak. 27 legal awareness camps were held in different parts of the country sponsored by NCW and conducted by NGOs.

10.2.3 NCW supported 5 research studies and 13 conferences etc. prominent among them being;

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Amendments of Laws on Rape
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Hearings of Sarpanches at Ajmer
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Expert Committee on Tribal women
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Studies on Dayin Pratha (Bihar)
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Status of Women prisoners (Rajasthan, Orissa, M.P., U.P.)
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Nutrition and Health Care of adolescent Girls (Orissa)
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Impact of Mining on Health of Women (Orissa)

The Commission continued to interact with State Commissions for Women and NGOs on issues like empowerment through education, awareness, amendment of laws and representation of women in all elected and decision making bodies.

10.2.4 The NCW monthly news letter RASHTRA MAHILA continued to be published regularly.

Inquiries related to violence against women

10.3.1 A two-member team of the Commission, after visiting Karvi in Chitrakoot district of Uttar Pradesh where an incident of child sexual abuse came to light, stressed the need for a suitable legislation to protect the girl child from being sexually abused.

10.3.2 NCW Enquiry Team which had visited Satpurva village in Mahoba district, saw no evidence of external pressure on the woman to kill herself or any signs of glorification of the act as "sati" by her family members or villagers.

10.3.3 A three-member joint inquiry committee of the National Commission for Women and National Commission for Minorities probed into the incident where a nun who was stripped and was forced to drink urine in Chapra village (Bihar).

10.3.4 The Commission inquired into the Batewara case in which a woman and her alleged lover were publicly molested after a decree of the Panchayat in Meerut District.

10.3.5 An NCW team visited Ranchi District to inquire into the background of Lalita Oraon, the 19 year old maid of an Indian diplomat who had allegedly been sexually assaulted in Paris.

10.3.6 When considering ways and means to tackle dowry deaths in Uttar Pradesh and to provide relief to the affected persons, the Commission suggested that in the event of murder of the daughter-in-law, the dowry must be returned to her parents.

10.3.7 The Commission took up a complaint of a 14 year old girl who was kidnapped and gangraped over three days, at Dasna District, U.P.

10.3.8 The Commission visited Muzzaffar Nagar, U.P. to inquire into the complaint of lathi charge on girl students during a rally organized in connection with the visit of the Prime Minister.

10.3.9 An inquiry Committee of NCW set up to probe on sexual harassment charges against the Principal of Delhi Public School, Faridabad in its report suggested that NCW ask the DPS Society to reinstate the affected women complainants in the school as per their original work conditions and terms. The DPS Society was also asked to reimburse all the costs incurred by the complainants in pursuing the complaint. The Commission also took serious note of the conduct of the Society in this case.

10.3.10 Three important complaints of sexual harassment at work place were received in the Commission during the year:

(1) Complaint by a lady standing counsel of Municipal Corporation of Delhi, against the Chief Law Officer, MCD. After enquiry the person involved was repatriated to his parent Department, as a punishment. (2) Complaint by five women employees of the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi against two officers of BIS After enquiry, the two officers were transferred to Chennai and Calcutta respectively as a penalty. (3) Complaint by a Woman ex-employee of LG Electronics India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi against the General Manager of the Company was mutually settled to the satisfaction of both the parties.

Sensitisation Programme

10.4.1 The National Commission for Women supported the Guild of Service, a New Delhi based NGO, in mobilizing women to celebrate the Millennium with a nation wide campaign called PEACE, which stands for Peace for Empowerment and Call for Equity. The slogan for this mass mobilization was "Peace for Empowerment and Empowerment for Peace".

10.4.2 The National Commission for Women has launched an ambitious programme to inculcate gender values amongst college students. The project is aimed at enabling them to exercise choices and take decisions against socially accepted but often perverted practices of gender bias. The whole idea is to influence young men and women when they are on the threshold of a new life out of school, and on the verge of becoming adults and equip them with functionally useful literacy and vocational skills.

10.4.3 The National Commission for Women in association with Indian Medical Association and UNICEF organized a rally against the practice of female foeticide in November, 99. In all, over 8000 people participated, which included school children, doctors, college students and representatives of IMA and various NGO’s. A memorandum demanding the need for strict action against the people responsible for the practice was submitted to H.E. the President of India.

Conferences, Seminars

10.5.1 The NCW Chairperson was a member of the Indian delegation at the meeting to review Regional Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action held at Bangkok in October, 1999. She chaired the critically important session on strategies for political empowerment of women. The Indian Delegation was headed by Ms. Kiran Aggarwal, Secretary, Deptt. Of Women & Child Development, who presented the status paper on India.

10.5.2 The Member Secretary, National Commission for Women attended a satellite symposium on ‘Gender Inequality, trafficking of Women and Children and AIDS’, in October, 1999 at Kuala Lumpur, on the occasion of the main conference on "Socio Economic Causes and Consequences of HIV/AIDS Epidemic: Focus in South Asia".

10.5.3 A two-day workshop was organized in November, 1999 in New Delhi by the National Commission for Women jointly with the Penal Reforms International and the Penal Reform and Justice Association, on "New Models of Accessible Justice" with special focus on women and juveniles to explore alternative framework that would make the entire criminal justice machinery more accessible and equitable, especially for the poor and powerless.

10.5.4 The Commission organized the first Interactive Session with Women Parliamentarians of the 13th Lok Sabha in December, 1999. The discussion focused basically on the 85th Constitutional Amendment Bill for Reservation for Women in Lok Sabha and State Legislatures and on the status and activities of NCW.

Other General Issues:

10.6.1 The National Commission for Women intensified lobbying to ensure the passage of the Women’s Reservation Bill pending in Parliament.

10.6.2 The National Commission for Women studied the cyclone situation in Orissa and collected relief materials for the cyclone victims in the State and despatched about ten truck loads of useful material such as clothes, candles, blankets, utensils, medicines and non-perishable food items.

10.6.3 Taking serious note of a recently published book titled "How to worship "Sati’, the National Commission for Women demanded its immediate withdrawal and suitable punitive measures under the law against the author of the book, Mr. Vishnu Dutt.

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Chapter 11

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh


11.1.1 The Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) was constituted as a Registered Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, sponsored by the Deptt. of Women & Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India, on 30th March, 1993. RMK was given a one time corpus fund of Rs.31 crore. The Kosh is administered by a Governing Board of 16 members consisting of Senior Officers of Central & State Governments and specialists and representatives of organisations active in the field of micro-credit for women.


11.2.1 The main objective of RMK is to facilitate credit support or micro-finance to poor women, as an instrument of socio-economic change & development. RMK mainly channelises its support through Non-governmental Organisations, Women Development Corporations, Cooperative Societies, Indira Mahila Block Samities under the Indira Mahila Yojana & suitable State Govt. agencies.


Eligibility Norms

(A) Main Loan Scheme

11.3.1 NGOs who fulfil the following eligibility norms may apply directly to RMK as per prescribed format for loan application :

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) The organisation should be registered for more than 3 years as on date of application to Rashtriya Mahila Kosh.
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) The organisation should have experience in thrift and credit management for 3 years or more.
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) The application should clearly reflect the source of funds utilised earlier for credit.
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Recoveries of the loans should be of a high order (around 90% of its dues)
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) There should be a proper and specific clause/provision in the bye-laws/ Memorandum of Association of the organisation having power to borrow or to raise loans from any outside agency.
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) There should be an appropriate reflection in its audited accounts and balance sheet in respect of its experience in providing credit and recoveries, etc., and there should not be any loss or objectionable observations in its audited accounts report.

11.3.2 Women Development Corporations running on sound lines and having adequate experience in thrift and credit administration of at least 3 years and fulfilling the eligibility norms as for NGOs, are eligible for obtaining credit from RMK.

11.3.3 In the case of Cooperative Societies, they should have at least 1/3rd women members in their General Body and also adequate representation of women on its Managing Committee and the society should be working at a profit at least for the last two years. Other terms and conditions are the same as for NGOs.

11.3.4 In the case of Indira Mahila Block Samities, they should be registered under the Indira Mahila Yojana and should have adequate experience in formation and stabilisation of SHGs, mobilisation of savings, experience in credit management and maintenance of proper books of accounts.

(B) Revolving Fund Scheme

11.4.1 The Revolving Fund Scheme was introduced with a view to provide more flexibility to the NGOs implementing income generation programme of the Kosh. Under the Scheme, credit limits upto 5% of total sanctions done by RMK during the year are sanctioned at a time, to identified and experienced organisations. The organisations are expected to revolve the funds by utilising recoveries for providing credit to more SHGs/ members particularly in the uncovered areas. The repayment starts on completion of 12 months from the date of release of the loan in 4 half yearly instalments. The total repayment period is 30 months.

(C) Promotional & Other Innovative Schemes

11.4.2 In the course of the last six years, Rashtriya Mahila Kosh has not only proved to be a successful scheme for taking the message of micro-credit to various parts of the country but has also proved to be a major venture in terms of efforts in poverty alleviation coupled with cost-effectiveness. The Kosh has also taken a number of promotional measures for popularising the concept of micro-financing, thrift-credit, formation and stabilisation of Self Help Groups and also enterprise development for poor women. Some of the promotional and other innovative schemes of RMK are explained below:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes)Loan Promotion Scheme - The Loan Promotion Scheme has been designed to promote the activities of thrift and credit among smaller but potentially capable NGOs/ organisations who do not meet the requirement of 3 year’s experience in thrift and credit management. The requirement of experience under the Loan Promotion Scheme has been reduced to one year i.e. the NGO/ organisation must have at least 1 year’s experience in thrift and credit. However, other eligibility norms are the same as in the case of RMK Main Loan Scheme. The maximum loan amount given to an NGO/ organisation under this Scheme is Rs.2 lakh.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Self Help Group (SHG) Development Scheme - Under the Scheme of SHG Development, financial assistance by way of interest-free loan convertible into grant on the fulfillment of specific conditions is given to the NGOs for formation, development and stabilisation of SHGs. The SHGs serve as decentralised centres of administration for NGOs who take responsibility for forming these groups. The SHGs provide strength to poor women and make them articulate and confident. The financial assistance provided under the SHG Scheme is Rs.4,300/- for one SHG or Rs.1 lakh for 25 SHGs during the first year. The portion of interest-free loan which is not converted into grant at the end of 30 months is recovered by RMK at 8% rate of interest.

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Nodal Agency Scheme - The Nodal Agency Scheme of RMK has been introduced to utilise the services of experienced and reputed organisations to promote new potential NGOs through training, monitoring and to help them acquire necessary capability to avail credit facilities from RMK. Organisations with micro-credit experience, adequate infrastructure and training capabilities are eligible to take up Nodal agency functions for RMK on entering into a Memorandum of Understanding with RMK. The Nodal Agency will identify and prepare new NGOs to eventually link them with RMK for extending credit facilities to poor women for income generation activities. The Scheme has been revised and made target oriented where each Nodal Agency will link at least 12-15 new NGOs with Rashtriya Mahila Kosh under one stream.


l Marketing Finance Scheme - The Scheme was introduced by RMK to help women beneficiaries to market their products to NGOs/ organisations.



11.5.1 The loans drawn from RMK are to be used by the Organisations/borrowers for undertaking income generation activities unless it is specifically mentioned for other purposes.


11.6.1 Maximum amount of loan under the Main Loan Scheme / Loan Promotion Scheme of RMK is Rs.7,500/- per borrower. The loans are given repeatedly, if necessary, to bring the women above the poverty line.

Rate of Interest

11.7.1 The NGOs and other organisations are given loans by RMK at 8% p.a., the interest to be charged on reduced balances. The NGOs can charge a rate of interest maximum upto 12% from the borrowers directly financed by the NGOs or from the Self Help Groups (SHGs). The SHGs can decide the rate of interest to be charged from its members subject to the ceiling that the interest rate should not exceed the interest rate of State Bank of India on its unsecured loans for the previous financial year. The loans from RMK do not have any element of subsidy and the women are asked not to provide any collateral security.


11.8.1 During the year 1999-2000, the following workshops were organised upto 31st January,2000 to generate awareness about its programmes/ schemes.

(1) (2) (3) (4)
1. Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) Awareness Workshop 50
2. Puri (Orissa)   Awareness Workshop 52
3. Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) Business Workshop 46
4. Pondicherry Awareness Workshop 32
5. Trichy (Tamil Nadu) Awareness Workshop  29
6. Bankura (West Bengal) Awareness Workshop 51
7. New Mumbai (Maharashtra)   35
8. Ahmedabad (Gujarat)   22


11.9.1 The following publications have been brought out by RMK during the year:

triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Guidelines for Monitors.
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Handbook on Self help Group Development Scheme.
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Handbook on Main Loan Scheme/Loan Promotion Scheme
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Hand book on Information, Education and Communication Scheme.
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Handbook on Death, Relief and Rehabilitation Fund Scheme.
triw1.gif (1005 bytes) Compendium of RMKs Schemes.

Recruitment rules

11.10.1 The Recruitment Rules of RMK were finalised and came into effect from 30th November, 1999. The rules provide for recruitment to various posts in RMK on short term contract basis.

Land and Buildings

11.11.1 Rastriya Mahila Kosh has purchased land for construction of its own building in NOIDA. It has also moved to a new and spacious building on rent at 1, Abul Fazal Road, Bengali Market, New Delhi.

Computerisation of MIS

11.12.1 Computerisation of Management Information System in RMK has been taken in hand and is to be completed shortly,.


11.13.1 RMKs own website was inaugurated by Smt. Sumitra Mahajan, Chairperson, RMK, and Minister of State, Department of Women and Child Development. The website address is


11.14.1 The projected estimates of loan sanctions during the year 1999-2000 are Rs.18 crores to benefit 56,250 women. As against this, Rashtriya Mahila Kosh has already sanctioned credit limits of Rs. 14.72 crores to benefit 47,458 women upto 31st January, 2000 through 224 new NGOs.

11.15.1 Since its inception on 30th March,1993 upto31st January,2000, the achievements of RMK are as under :

Credit limit sanctioned Rs.77.36 crores
No. of women beneficiaries 3,49,752
No. of collaborating  NGOs/Organisations 688
Disbursements already made Rs.57.62 crores

11.15.2 A statement showing year-wise details of sanctions/disbursements with cumulative figures as on 31st January, 2000, is at Annexure-XVIII .

11.15.3 During the year 1999-2000, an amount of Rs.18 lakhs has been sanctioned to the NGOs in the North-Eastern region including Sikkim from Ist April,1999, upto 31st January, 2000, to benefit 510 women. The cummulative amount of sanctions in the North Eastern Region including Sikkim since inception of RMK in 1993 to 31st January, 2000, is Rs.136 lakhs.

Rate of Recovery

11.16.1 The rate of recovery of RMK loans has been consistently high and above 90% during the last 6 years since its inception.

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